lunes, 30 de enero de 2017

Alberto Moravia


DRAGON

Alberto Moravia
(1907 - 1990)

Alberto Moravia, pseudonym of Alberto Pincherle (born Nov. 28, 1907, Rome, Italy—died Sept. 26, 1990, Rome), Italian journalist, short-story writer, and novelist known for his fictional portrayals of social alienation and loveless sexuality. He was a major figure in 20th-century Italian literature.

Moravia contracted tuberculosis of the bone (a form of osteomyelitis usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) at the age of 8, but, during several years in which he was confined to bed and two years in sanatoriums, he studied French, German, and English; read Giovanni Boccaccio, Ludovico Ariosto, William Shakespeare, and Molière; and began to write. Moravia was a journalist for a time in Turin and a foreign correspondent in London. His first novel, Gli indifferenti(1929; Time of Indifference), is a scathingly realistic study of the moral corruption of a middle-class mother and two of her children. It became a sensation. Some of his more important novels are Agostino (1944; Two Adolescents); La Romana(1947; The Woman of Rome); La disubbidienza (1948; Disobedience); and Il conformista (1951; The Conformist), all on themes of isolation and alienation. La ciociara (1957; Two Women) tells of an adaptation to post-World War II Italian life.La noia (1960; The Empty Canvas) is the story of a painter unable to find meaning either in love or work. Many of Moravia’s books were made into motion pictures.

His books of short stories include Racconti romani (1954; Roman Tales) and Nuovi racconti romani (1959; More Roman Tales). Racconti di Alberto Moravia (1968) is a collection of earlier stories. Later short-story collections include Il paradiso (1970; “Paradise”) and Boh (1976; The Voice of the Sea and Other Stories).

Most of Moravia’s works deal with emotional aridity, isolation, and existential frustration and express the futility of either sexual promiscuity or conjugal love as an escape. Critics have praised the author’s stark, unadorned style, his psychological penetration, his narrative skill, and his ability to create authentic characters and realistic dialogue.

Moravia’s views on literature and realism are expressed in a stimulating book of essays, L’uomo come fine (1963; Man as an End), and his autobiography, Alberto Moravia’s Life, was published in 1990. He was married for a time to the novelist Elsa Morante.


Alberto Moravia and Elsa Morante

“And we all know love is a glass which makes even a monster appear fascinating.” 
― Alberto Moravia, The Woman of Rome



“This thought strengthened in me my belief that all men, without exception, deserve to be pitied, if only because they are alive.” 
― Alberto Moravia, The Woman of Rome



“Every true writer is like a bird; he repeats the same song, the same theme, all his life. For me, this theme as always been revolt.” 
― Alberto Moravia



Alberto Moravia, Novelist, Is Dead at 82
By CLYDE HABERMAN, Special to The New York Times
Published: September 27, 1990

ROME, Sept. 26— Alberto Moravia, whose many novels explored alienation and other social traumas while focusing almost obsessively on human sexuality, died today at his apartment overlooking the Tiber River here. He was 82 years old.

He had either a stroke or a heart attack, his doctor said in a preliminary report.

Mr. Moravia was Italy's most widely read author in this century, his works having been translated into some 30 languages and selling in the millions around the world.

Movie versions of several novels further enhanced his popularity, perhaps none more so than the 1961 film ''Two Women,'' directed by Vittorio De Sica.

Reflecting a Fear

Based on ''La Ciociara,'' a highly acclaimed Moravia book published in 1957, it is a wrenching tale of the deprivations endured by a widowed Roman shopkeeper and her daughter toward the end of World War II. Their ordeal in the mountains south of Rome reflected the writer's own experiences during that period, when he feared arrest by Italy's Nazi occupiers.

Many literary scholars argue that Mr. Moravia was not only his country's best-selling modern writer but also simply its best, on the strength of his starkly worded studies of emotional aridity and his blunt openness about sex. None would dispute that he ranked high among Italian literary giants of the century, including Primo Levi, Ignazio Silone, Luigi Pirandello, Italo Calvino and Leonardo Sciascia.

Critics have frequently pointed out that most of Mr. Moravia's most fertile years were in the 1940's and 1950's, when he produced a dozen novels and collections of short stories. His more recent works often fell far short of the earlier standards of critical success.

Nevertheless, he endured as a national monument and was considered almost an institution in his native Rome. He could be cranky and not always the most pleasant companion, said those who knew him well. But always he remained Moravia, quotable and free with opinions.

'Biting but Also Highly Sensitive'

Upon word of his death this morning, the tributes flowed freely, and several prominent writers, including Natalia Ginzburg and Enzo Siciliano, made pilgrimages to his apartment along a northern curve of the capital's winding river.

The President of Italy, Francesco Cossiga, issued a statement in which he praised Mr. Moravia as a ''biting but also highly sensitive narrator of Italian society in the 20th century: its contradictions, bewilderments and anxious search for values.''

For himself, the author left no dearth of self-opinions and asides that could serve as epitaphs. In a memoir called ''The Life of Alberto Moravia,'' which is written in the form of an interview by a French writer, Alain Elkann, and is to be issued next week by the Italian publisher Bompiani, Mr. Moravia said, ''My life, like everyone's life, is a chaos, and the only continuous thread is literature.''

About Some Priorities

''I have been a writer, and that's it,'' he said. ''I have taken literature seriously above all else. The rest has been subordinated.''

His wife, Carmen Llera, a Spanish advertising executive whom he married in 1986 when she was 32 and he 78, was in Morocco at his death and was reported to be flying back to Rome.

Mr. Moravia had no children either by her or his first wife, the writer Elsa Morante, who died four years ago a few months before his remarriage. They had been separated for many years, a period that included Mr. Moravia's long relationship with a young Italian writer, Dacia Maraini.

Mr. Moravia's body was taken to a room on Capitol Hill, Rome's civic heart. It is to be put on public view there on Thursday. A nonreligious memorial service is to be held on Friday morning on the hill's elegant main square, designed by Michelangelo in the 16th century, and burial is to be at the Verano Cemetery in Rome.

Sheltered and Lonely

Moravia was his pen name.

He was born on Nov. 28, 1907, and was named Alberto Pincherle. He was the son of a prosperous Jewish architect and painter from Venice and an Austro-Hungarian countess. His childhood was sheltered but also lonely, for at the age of 8 he contracted tuberculosis of the leg bones, a crippling disease that was eventually cured but left him with a distinct limp.

The illness also kept him out of school. Bedridden for much of the next 10 years, he read voraciously on his own and received his education from French, English and German governesses who taught him their languages as well as Italian.

''To understand my character,'' Mr. Moravia says in his memoir, ''you must keep in mind that I was ill in infancy, and because of it I was alone, completely alone, until I was 18. I never went to school. I never had other children to play with. Solitude entered my soul so deeply that even today I feel a profound detachment from others.''

At 16, he entered a sanitarium in the Italian Alps and began work on a novel, continuing to polish it for several years after leaving the institution in 1925. In the meantime, moving about on crutches, he started contributing to avant-garde literary reviews, publications hardly in favor with the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, which by then had taken over Italy.

Winning Critical Praise

The young Moravia had a hard time finding someone to print his novel, and finally in 1929 he arranged for its publication on his own, paying a small printing house what he later said was the equivalent of $1,500.

It was called ''Gli Indifferenti,'' translated many years later into English as ''The Time of Indifference.'' The book attacked the exaggerated mother cult that the Fascists had encouraged, describing the moral corruption of a grasping widow and her relationship with her daughter and son.

While the novel won critical praise, it raised eyebrows and hackles among Fascist censors. And it left the young novelist a marked man.

A second novel, ''Mistaken Ambitions,'' was published in 1935, but the Government ordered newspapers not to review it. In 1941 - the year that he married Elsa Morante, who was then not the prominent writer she would later become - literary matters grew even worse for Mr. Moravia. He produced ''The Fancy Dress Party,'' an easily recognized satire of Italy's dictatorship, and afterward the censors ordered that he write nothing, not even newspaper articles.

The Necessity of Travel

Even so, he managed to elude the authorities by writing novels, short stories and even film scripts under an assumed name. Starting in the mid-1930's, he also avoided Fascist pressures by traveling widely abroad, including a seven-month period in 1934 and 1935 when he lectured at Columbia University in New York City.

Politically, Mr. Moravia was left of center, entering active politics relatively late in life. In 1984, he was elected to the European Parliament as a representative of Italy's Independent Left. To the end, however, he insisted that politics held no fascination for him, and in his memoir he dismisses the entire profession as ''very boring.''

It was less so in 1943, when Nazi Germany occupied Rome and Mr. Moravia discovered that he was on a list of anti-Facist subversives who were to be arrested. He fled to the mountains outside the capital, enduring nine months of hunger and cold, until the Allied liberation in 1944 enabled him to return to Rome for good.

From then on, for at least the next 16 years, Moravia novels and short stories poured forth in rapid succession.

One important work was ''La Romana,'' published in the United States by Farrar, Straus as ''The Woman of Rome,'' a 1947 novel that follows the career of a prostitute and her relationships with a series of lovers.

In 1951, Mr. Moravia wrote ''The Conformist,'' whose central character is an unsavory young man so afraid of his homosexual and sadistic tendencies that he masks them by becoming a Fascist police agent.

Other novels and collections from that prolific period include ''Roman Tales,'' ''More Roman Tales,'' ''Disobedience,'' ''The Empty Canvas'' and ''Conjugal Love.''

With Plays, Essays and Articles

During his long career, Mr. Moravia produced more than two dozen works of fiction, including a collection of stories called ''The Friday Villa,'' published here in August and reported to have already sold 50,000 copies. He also wrote half a dozen plays and countless essays and magazine articles, many of them on his frequent journeys around the globe.

Critics often praised him, especially in his earlier years, for his stark writing style, his realistic dialogue and his narrative skills, all of which he poured into explorations of disillusion, alienation and - most conspicuously - sexual experience.

''Moravia was a very daring writer,'' said Frank MacShane, a writer and a professor in the School of the Arts at Columbia University. ''He was one of the first European authors to write honestly about sex. Especially after World War II, he liberated the thoughts of many writers by his own example in fiction.''

'No Love Without Sex'

Discussing sex in his memoir, Mr. Moravia himself says:

''There can be sex without love, but there can be no love without sex. That is to say, that you can very well have a quick sexual relationship, even a very happy one, without love. However, the opposite is not possible. It is like a match thrown away in a forest. The forest bursts into flame and the match is lost, but at the beginning there was that match.''

Given such views, it was perhaps not surprising that in 1952 Mr. Moravia's novels and stories were declared immoral by the Vatican and placed on its Index of Forbidden Books. The Index was discontinued in the mid-1960's amid the liberalizing reforms set into motion by the Second Vatican Council. But traces of possible displeasure linger at the Holy See, perhaps suggested in the brief notice given to Mr. Moravia's death on Vatican Radio and in this afternoon's edition of L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican newspaper.

A Writer's Beliefs

Presumably, Mr. Moravia would have shrugged off the scant attention. Organized religion held little interest for him.

''I don't know if I believe in God,'' he says in the memoir. ''I never thought seriously about it.''

In his later years, critics treated him less than kindly when he produced works like ''1934,'' a 1982 novel set in the middle of the Fascist era, and ''La Cosa'' a highly libidinous book published here in 1983 and issued a few years later in the United States under the title ''Erotic Tales.''

But Mr. Moravia continued to write, ignoring the critics and insisting to the end that vanity did not govern his soul.

''To be satisfied with success, one needs to be conceited,'' he says in his memoir. ''And I am not conceited, sincerely.''

Writing of Sex And Trauma

The prolific Alberto Moravia published his first novel, ''Time of Indifference,'' in 1929 and established an international reputation after World War II with ''The Woman of Rome.'' His books were frequently translated into English and published by Farrar, Straus & Giroux. Here is a list of his best-known works:

The Woman of Rome, 1949

Two Adolescents, 1950

The Conformist, 1951

Conjugal Love, 1951

The Time of Indifference, 1953

Roman Tales, 1957

Two Women, 1958

The Empty Canvas, 1961)

Time of Desecration, 1980

The Voyeur,1987





WORKS
La cortigiana stanca (1927) (Tired Courtesan)
Gli indifferenti (Time of Indifference, 1929)
Inverno di malato (1930) (A Sick Boy's Winter)
Le ambizioni sbagliate (1935)
La bella vita (1935)
L'imbroglio (1937, novellas) (The Imbroglio)
I sogni del pigro (1940)
La caduta (1940) (The Fall)
La mascherata (1941) (The Fancy Dress Party, 1952)
La cetonia (1943)
L'amante infelice (1943) (The Unfortunate Lover)
Agostino (Two Adolescents, 1944)
L'epidemia (1944, short story collection)
Ritorno al mare (1945) (Return to the Sea)
L'ufficiale inglese (1946) (The English Officer)
La romana (The Woman of Rome, 1947)
La disubbidienza (Disobedience, 1947)
L'amore coniugale (1947, short story collection)(Conjugal Love, Other Press, 2007)
Il conformista (The Conformist, 1947)
L'amore coniugale (The Conjugal Love, 1949)
Luna di miele, sole di fiele (1952) (Bitter Honeymoon)
Racconti romani (Roman Tales, 1954)
Il disprezzo (A Ghost at Noon or Contempt, 1954)
La ciociara (Two Women, 1957)
Nuovi racconti romani (1959)
La noia (The Empty Canvas or Boredom, 1960)
L'automa (The Fetish, 1962, collection of short stories)
L'uomo come fine (1963, essay)
L'attenzione (The Lie, 1965)
Una cosa e una cosa (Command, and I Will Obey You, 1967, short story collection)
Il dio Kurt (drama, 1969)
La vita è gioco (1969)
Il paradiso (1970)
Io e lui (Him and Me, 1971)
A quale tribù appartieni (1972)
Un'altra vita (1973)
Al cinema (1975, essays)
Boh (1976)
La vita interiore (1978)
Impegno controvoglia (1980)
"1934" (1982)
La cosa e altri racconti (1983, short story collection)
L'uomo che guarda (1985)
L'inverno nucleare (1986, essays and interviews)
Il viaggio a Roma (1988)
La villa del venerdì e altri racconti (1990)




domingo, 29 de enero de 2017

Juan Rulfo


DRAGON
Juan Rulfo / No Dogs Bark
Juan Rulfo / Photographer
A brief survery of the short story / Juan Rulfo
Juan Rulfo / It´s Because We're So Poor

DE OTROS MUNDOS

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Cuentos

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BIOGRAFÍAS

Juan Rulfo
(1917 - 1986)




Mexican novelist and short story writer, one of Spanish America's most esteemed authors. Rulfo's reputation is based on two slim books, El llano en llamas (1953, The Burning Plain), a collection of short stories, which included his admired tale 'Tell Them, Not to Kill Me!', and the timeless novel Pedro Páramo (1955), one of the models for Gabriel García Márquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude. After publishing the work, Rulfo fell silent as a novelist.





Photo by Juan Rulfo


"But that's why they brought him from there, from Palo de Venado. They didn't need to tie him so he'd follow them. He walked alone, tied by his fear. They realized the couldn't run with his old body, with those skinny legs of his like dry bark, cramped up with the fear of dying. Because that's where he was headed. For death. They told him so." (from 'Tell Them Not to Kill Me!')

Photo by Juan Rulfo

Juan Rulfo was born Juan Nepomuceno Carlos Pérez Vizcaíno Rulfo in Sayula, in the province of Jalisco, into a family of landowners. (According to one source, his birth year was 1917, not 1918.) His ancestors came to South America from the north of Spain around 1790. During Rulfo's childhood the region was a scene of political unrest, erosion and war, and it later provided the background and atmosphere of his fiction.
Rulfo experienced the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) and cristero rebellion. It caused widespread destruction in the late 1920s. Rulfo's family suffered financial ruin. His father and two uncles were murdered in the troubles, and his mother died in 1927 of a heart attack. 
Rulfo was brought up by his grandmother in San Gabriel and sent to the San Gabriel orphanage. After attending the Luis Silva school in Guadaljara from 1928 to 1932 and then seminary and secondary school, Rulfo moved to Mexico City, where he studied for a short time law at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Yet for all his efforts he could never overcome his feeling of depression and solitude. Forced to give up his studies, Rulfo worked for the next two decades as an immigration agent in Mexico City, Tampico, Guadalajara, and Veracruz. In 1947 he married Clara Aparicio, they had one daughter and three sons.
In 1944 Rulfo cofounded with Juan José Arreola and Antonio Alatorre of the literary review Pan. He worked for Goodrich-Euzkadi rubber company (1947-1954), and in 1955-56 he was a staff member of the publishing section of the Papaloapan Commission for land development. In the late 1950s he wrote screenplays in Mexico City and worked then in television in Guadalajara. From the early 1960s Rulfo was a staff member and later the director of the editorial department of National Institute for Indigenous Studies, where he edited seventy anthropological and archaeological volumes on indigenous peoples. The work took him away from writing fiction. In 1980 Rulfo was elected member of the Mexican Academy of Letters. His many  awards include the National Literature Prize in 1970 and Príncipe de Asturias Prize in 1983. Rulfo died in Mexico City on January 7, 1986. 
Rulfo began writing around 1940, but destroyed his first novel. At the age of 35 Rulfo published first collection of short stories, El llano en llamas (The Burning Plain), which consists of fifteen tales. It was published in the series 'Letras Mexicanas'in editions between 2,000 and 4,000 copies. Rulfo was frustrated at the low sales of the book. 
Cruel view of the world marked Rulfo's world – a girl is forced to prostitution, a cuckolded husband dies on a pilgrimage, people are crippled by their poverty. In 1953 he started to write the novel Pedro Páramo. These works sum up the so-called "novel of the Mexican revolution." Rulfo did not talk much of his fiction. Writing, he maintained, was not his profession, but his hobby. Rulfo was known to write a novel entitled La cordillera, but he did not show the manuscript to anybody. However, he wrote several film scripts, of which Gallo de orofrom 1964 is most famous.
The rebellion of the Cristeros (self-designated followers of Christ the King) had a strong impact on Rulfo's imagination, which can be seen in the title story of El llano en llamas, 'La noche que lo dejaron solo.' Autobiographical material, especially the killing of his father, shaped 'Tell Them Not to Kill Me!' In the story about a revenge an old man pleads to his own son, Justino, to intervene on his behalf. Another son, colonel, has come back and orders the damned man to be shot – years ago during a drought he had killed the colonel's father. "There he was, slumped down at the foot of the post. His son Justino had come and his son Justino had gone and had returned and now was coming again."
The theme of the search for the father marks also Pedro Páramo from the start: "I came to Comala because I was told that my father, a certain Pedro Páramo, lived there." (Vine a Comala porque me dijeron que acá vivía mi padre, un tal Pedro Páramo. Mi madre me lo dijo. Y lo le prometi que vendría a verlo en cuanto ella muriera.) Rulfo blends black humor and modern experimental techniques with Mexican folklore. Noteworthy, the indigenous people are mentioned only in one passage. He once said: "I never use Indians because it's impossible for me to enter and be able to delve into the indigenous mentality."
The son of the main character, Juan Preciado, travels to his mother's birthplace to search out his father. He only hears in the ghost town voices of phantoms.Comala, a barred dustbowl, is so hot, that when its people die and arrive in Hell they have to come back to fetch a blanket. Doña Eduviges, Damiana who had lived in Páramo's house, Dorotea a mad woman who had procured women for Páramo's son, all these appear as living people to Preciado. Pedro loves Susanna, who dies and allows his land to fall into ruin: "From that moment, the earth remained fallow and as if in ruins. It was terrible to see it overrun with such infirmities and so many scourges which invaded it as soon as it was left alone. And all because of the ideas of Don Pedro, for the conflicts of his soul." But everybody is already dead, his father has also taken the town, Comala, with him to the grave. The reader realizes that Juan Preciado is another afterlife voice in this Mexican Spoon River Anthology. The story ends with Pedro Páramado's murder by one of his other sons. Pedro Páramo has influenced deeply Latin American literature. Gabriel Garcia Marquez included a sentence from the book in One Hundred Years of Solitude. Also Rulfo's ghost town, populated by phantoms, partly inspired García Márquez's portrayal of his mythical town of Macondo.
Rulfo challenged the mainstream of Mexican narrative, its adherence to French naturalism. He mixed reality and fantasy, used short sentences, concentrated on behavior rather than states of consciousness, and avoided clearly judging characters he described. Rulfo's work also showed the influence of such Nordic writers as Knut Hamsum, Selma Lagerlöf, F. E. Sillanpää, and Halldor K. Laxness. Also Emily Brontë and William Faulkner left traces in Rulfo's fiction. Typical for Rulfo's stories were problematic father-son relationships, flashbacks of violence, upside-down chronology, haunting visions, and the burden of guilt and death. Dialogue is often treated as monologue. The Mexican poet Octavio Paz once said that Rulfo is "the only Mexican novelist to have provided us an image – rather than a mere description – of our physical surroundings."



For further reading(Re)Collecting the Past: History and Collective Memory in Latin American Narrative, ed. Victoria Carpenter (2010);Juan Rulfo's Mexico by Juan Rulfo, Carlos Fuentes, Margo Glantz and Jorge Alberto Lozoya (2002); Encyclopedia of World Literature in the 20th Century, Vol. 3, ed. by Steven Serafin (1999); Ensayos sobre la obra de Juan Rulfo by Gustavo Fares (1998); Juan Rulfo by Gustavo C. Fares (1994); Los caminos de la creación en Juan Rulfo by Sergio López Mena (1993); Juan Rulfo by Silvia Lorente-Murphy (1988); El Texto En Llamas: El Arte Narrativo De Juan Rulfo by Terry J. Peavler (1988) ; Rulfo: dinámica de la violerncia by Magda Portal (1984); Juan Rulfoby Luis Leal (1983), Analisis Arquetipico, Mitico Y Simbologico De Pedro Paramo by Nicolas E. Alvarez (1983); Claves narrativas de Juan Rulfo by José Carlos Gonzáles Boixo (1980); World Authors 1970-1975, ed. by John Wakeman (1980); El lugar de Rulfo by Jorge Ruffinelli (1980); El Estilo De Juan Rulfo by Nila G. Marrone (1978) ; La narrativa de Juan Rulfo, ed. by Joseph Sommers (1974); Paradise and Fall in Rulfo's "Pedro Páramo" by George Ronald Freeman (1970); An Introduction to Spanish-American Literature by Jean Franco (1969); After the Storm by J. Sommers (1968); Into the Mainstream by L. Harss and B. Dohmann (1966); El arte de Juan Rulfo by Alcalá Rodríguez (1965)



Selected works:
  • El llano en llamas, 1953 
    - The Burning Plain and Other Stories (translated by G.D. Schade, 1967) / The Plain in Flames (translated from the Spanish by Ilan Stavans with Harold Augenbraum, 2012) 
    - Tasanko liekeissä (suom. Tarja Roinila, 1998)
  • Pedro Páramo, 1955 
    - Pedro Páramo (tr.  Lysander Kemp, 1959;  Margaret Sayers Peden; with a foreword by Susan Sontag, 1994) 
    - Pedro Páramo (suom. Tarja Roinila, 1991) 
    - films: 1967, dir. by Carlos Velo, screenplay by Carlos Fuentes, starring John Gavin, Ignacio López Tarso, Pilar Pellicer; 1978, dir. by José Bolaños, starring Manuel Ojeda, Venetia Vianello, Bruno Rey, Narciso Busquets, Blanca Guerra; 2009, dir. by Mateo Gil
  • Tambien ellos tienen ilusiones, 1956 (documentary film; co-writer, dir. by Adolfo Garnica)
  • El Despojo, 1960 (short film; writer, dir. by Antonio Reynoso)
  • Paloma herida, 1963 (film; co-writer, dir. by Emilio Fernández)
  • Que esperen los viejos, 1976 (film; co-writer, dir. by José Bolaños)
  • Obra completa, 1977
  • Antología personal, 1978  
  • El gallo de oro y otros textos para cine, 1980 (edited by Jorge Ayala)
  • Inframundo, El México de Juan Rulfo, 1980 
    - Inframundo: The Mexico of Juan Rulfo (edited by Frank Janney, 1984)
  • Donde quedo nuestra historia: hipotesis sobre historia regional, 1986
  • Toda la obra, 1991 (edited by Claude Fell)
  • Los cuadernos de Juan Rulfo, 1994 (edited by Clara Aparicio de Rulfo)
  • Aire de las colinas: cartas a Clara, 2000
  • Voces y silencios, 2001
  • Letras e imágenes, 2002 (introduction by VÍctor Jiménez)
  • El gallo de oro; Formula secreta, 2010 (introduction by  Jose Carlos Gonzalez Boixo, Douglas Weatherford)
  • 100 photographs, 2010



jueves, 19 de enero de 2017

Artemisia Gentileschi



Self-Portrait
Artemisia Gentileschi

DRAGON

Artemisia Gentileschi

(b. 1593, Rome Italy; d.1652/3, Naples, Italy)

Artemisia Gentileschi was an early Italian Baroque painter, and the only female follower of Caravaggio, whom she worked with in Italy in the early 17th century. Her innovative compositions and focus on Biblical heroines set her apart from her male contemporaries and have lead to the celebration of Gentileschi as a painter with a uniquely female perspective.
Gentileschi was born in Rome, the daughter of celebrated painter Orazio Gentileschi. As a young girl, she served as an apprentice to her father, learning the skills of a professional painter. When her father recognized that she had advanced beyond his training, he hired the painter Agostino Tassi to further her painting skills. In 1612, Tassi raped Gentileschi, an event now inextricably linked to her name. After a lengthy and painful trial, Tassi was found guilty and jailed for eight months. This event had a tremendously negative impact on Artemisia Gentileschi’s reputation, and the artist suffered from gossip that branded her a promiscuous woman.
Soon after the trial, Orazio Gentileschi arranged a marriage for his daughter, after which she moved to Florence, Italy, where she earned the generous support and patronage of the Medici duke, Cosimo II. In 1616, she was the first woman to be accepted into the Florentine Academy of Fine Arts, where she continued her artistic education. During this period, Gentileschi was held in high esteem by both the royal court and scholars, eventually establishing a much-heralded relationship with the astronomer, philosopher, and physicist, Galileo.
She and her husband had two daughters, both of whom eventually became painters. When Gentileschi and her husband separated, she became the head of her own household, enjoying a freedom and independence known to few of her female contemporaries. She and her daughters frequently moved in Italy for career opportunities and to accommodate patronage that included the Medici family and King Charles I of England. In 1641, Gentileschi relocated to Naples where she lived out the remainder of her life. While Gentileschi was a recognized painter in her lifetime, after her death a great deal of her work fell into obscurity and was often attributed to other followers of Caravaggio or to her father.
Art historian Mary Garrard notes that Artemisia Gentileschi “suffered a scholarly neglect that is unthinkable for an artist of her caliber” (Garrard, Artemisia Gentileschi, 3). Only now, in light of recent academic activity, has Gentileschi become recognized for her retelling of biblical stories from the perspective of a woman, such as her famous Judith Beheading Holofernes,1612–13, which portrays the heroine Judith mercilessly decapitating the brutish Holofernes in order to save her people from tyranny, as well as her portrayal of Mary Magdalene in The Conversion of the Magdalene,1615–16.


Artemisia Gentileschi at The Dinner Party

Judy Chicago celebrates the link between Artemisia Gentileschi and her often-painted subject, Judith, by repeating the place setting’s color palette. Additionally, the sword image that pierces the first letter “A” of “Artemisia” is the same as that of the “J” in Judith’s illuminated letter, signifying each woman’s physical and emotional strength. The illuminated letter “A” on Gentileschi’s runner is comprised of an artist’s paintbrush and palette, representing her life as an artist.
The plate is surrounded by rich and luscious velvet fabric, modeled on the costumes of Gentileschi’s female subjects. The gold fabric references the color in Gentileschi’s paintings, which became known as “Artemisia gold,” and was often associated with the artist. Chicago explains that this fabric nearly engulfs the plate, representing the safe, protective environment that Orazio Gentileschi attempted to create for his daughter (Chicago, A Symbol of Our Heritage, 82). Underneath the velvet there is fabric decorated in a repeating Baroque-style pomegranate motif, indicative of the time period in which Gentileschi painted. This stenciled motif was modeled on “bizarre silk,” a popular style in the seventeenth century in which pattern was overlaid on pattern, creating a repetitive and unique design.
The butterfly image of Gentileschi’s plate demonstrates the chiaroscuro technique, made famous by one of the artist’s masters, Caravaggio. Chiaroscuro uses a dramatic play of light and dark to convey a theatrical quality to the painting and was popularized during the Baroque period. The “twisting and turning form” on the plate serves also to represent the “extraordinary efforts required of any women of [Gentileschi’s] time who desired to become an artist” (Chicago, The Dinner Party, 97).

Artemisia Gentileschi_Self-Portrait as A Lute Player

Primary Sources

Roman Court Rapes and Procurements: The Curia and the State versus Agostino Tassi Painter. 1612. Archived at the Archivio di Stato di Roma, Rome, Italy.


Translations, Editions, and Secondary Sources

Bal, Mieke, ed. The Artemisia Files: Artemisia Gentileschi for Feminists and Other Thinking People. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Bissell, R. Ward. Artemisia Gentileschi and the Authority of Art: Critical Reading and Catalogue Raisonne. University Park, Penn.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999.
Christiansen, Keith, and Judith W. Mann, et al. Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art in association with Yale University Press, 2001.
Garrard, Mary D. Artemisia Gentileschi. Rizzoli Art Series. New York: Rizzoli, 1993.
——.Artemisia Gentileschi: The Image of the Female Hero in Italian Baroque Art. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.
——-. Artemisia Gentileschi around 1622: The Shaping and Reshaping of an Artistic Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
Mann, Judith W. Artemisia Gentileschi: Taking Stock. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2005.





domingo, 1 de enero de 2017

Jorge Luis Borges / Cervantes Prize in 1979



DRAGON
Quote / Paradise

KISS



Jorge Luis Borges
(1989 - 1996)

Argentine poet, essayist, and short-story writer, whose tales of fantasy and dreamworlds are classics of the 20th-century world literature. Borges was profoundly influenced by European culture, English literature, and such thinkers as Berkeley, who argued that there is no material substance; the sensible world consists only of ideas, which exists for so long as they are perceived. Most of Borges's tales embrace universal themes – the often recurring circular labyrinth can be seen as a metaphor of life or a riddle which theme is time. Although Borges's name was mentioned in speculations about Nobel Prize, Borges never became a Nobel Laureate.



Toward dawn, he dreamed that he was in hiding, in one of the naves of the Clementine Library. What are you looking for? a librarian wearing dark glasses asked him. I'm looking for God, Hladik replied. God, the librarian said, is in one of the letters on one of the pages of one of the four hundred thousand volumes in the Clementine. My parents and my parents' parents searched for that letter; I myself have gone blind searching for it(in 'The Secret Miracle', tr. Andrew Hurley, Collected Fictions, 1998)



           Jorge Luis Borges was born in Buenos Aires. His family included British ancestry and he learned English before Spanish. Jorge Guillermo Borges, his father, was a lawyer and a psychology teacher, who demonstrated the paradoxes of Zeno on a chessboard for his son. In the large house was also a library and garden which enchanted Borges's imagination. Borges's mother, Leonor Acevedo Haedo, was a translator; she lived far into her 90's. In 1914 the family moved to Geneva, where Borges learned French and German and received his B.A. from the Collège of Geneva. According to a story, Borges's father, worried about his son's sexual initation, sent him to a prostitute in the red-light district area, the Place Dubourg de Four. There Borges started to think that his father was her "client". Borges's visit failed miserably and perhaps contributed to his lifelong difficulties with women.
          After World War I the Borges family lived in Spain, where he was a member of avant-garde Ultraist literary group. His first poem, 'Hymn to the Sea,' written in the style of Walt Whitman, was published in the magazine Grecia. In 1921 Borges settled in Buenos Aires. There he started his career as a writer by publishing poems and essays in literary journals. Among his friends was the philosopher Macedonio Fernandez, whose dedication linguistic problems influenced his thought. Borges's first collection of poetry was FERVOR DE BUENOS AIRES (1923). He contributed to the avant-garde review Martin Fierro, and co-founded the journal Proa (1924-26). For decades Borges was the chief contributor of Sur, Argentina's most important literary journal, which was founded in 1931 by Victoria Ocampo. He also served as literary adviser for the publishing house Emecé Editores, worked as a literary editor of the Saturday Color Magazine of the tabloid newspaper Crítica, and wrote weekly columns for El Hogar from 1936 to 1939. As a critic Borges gained fame with interpretations of the Argentine classics. His writings displayed a deep knowledge of European and American literature, in particular for such writers as Poe, Stevenson, Kipling, Shaw, Chesterton, Whitman, Emerson, and Twain. He also translated Virginia Woolf's Orlando, Henri Michaux's A Barbarian in Asia, Herman Melville's Bartleby the Scrivener, and William Faulkner's The Wild Palms.
         Borges's father died in 1938, a great blow because the two had been unusually close. Borges also suffered a severe head wound. He developed a blood poisoning and nearly died. The experience freed in him deep forces of creativity, and at the hospital, where he spent several weeks, he wrote several of his most important stories. His first collection, EL JARDÍN DE SENDEROS QUE SE BIFURCAN (1941) was nominated for the National Literary Prize, but a lesser book was awarded, in spite of a special issue by Sur, in which a number of his friends and acquaintances expressed their support. Later collections include FICCIÓNES (1944), EL ALEPH (1949), and EL EL HACEDOR (1960). Borges's interest in fantasy was shared by another well-known Argentine writer of fiction, Adolfo Bioy Casares, with whom Borges coauthored under the pseudonym H. Bustos Domecq several collections of tales.
        From 1937 Borges worked as a cataloguer at the Miguel Cane branch of the Buenos Aires Municipal Library. The job did not interest him and he usually disappeared into the basement to read (especially Kafka), write, and translate. The never-ending process of cataloguing inspired one of Borges's most famous short stories, 'The Library of Babel' (1941), in which the faithful catalog of the Library is supplemented with "thousands and thousands of false catalogs, the proof of the falsity of those false catalogs, a proof of the falsity of the true catalog". Borges spent nine years at the suburban library. He was fired in 1946 from his post by the Péron regime, and appointed poultry inspector for Buenos Aires Municipal Market, a position he declined.
          Borges's political opinions were not considered inoffensive. As a sign of negative attention, an attempt was made to bomb the house where Borges lived with his mother. His sister was imprisoned and his mother was placed under house arrest. With he help Miguel Cohen-Miller, a psychotherapist, Borges managed to overcome his shyness and he could accept lecture offers. Dr Cohen-Miller also noted that Borges was exaggerated sensitive, had guilt feeling and fear of sex. Later Estela Canto, whom Borges met in 1944, wrote in Borges a contraluz (1989), that Borges's attitude toward sex was one of "panic and terror".
         In 1946 Borges took over the editorship of Los Annales de Buenos Aires, an academic magazine. His first story in English, 'The Garden of Forking Paths', was published in 1948 in Ellery Queen Mystery Magazine. After Peron's deposition in 1955 Borges became Director of the National Library. "I speak of God's splendid irony in granting me at once 800 000 book and darkness," Borges noted alluding to his now almost complete blindness. Borges also was professor of English literature at the University of Buenos Aires, and taught there from 1955 to 1970.
          Borges shared the Prix Formentor with Samuel Beckett in 1961. After the death of his mother, his constant companion, Borges started his series of visits to countries all over the world, continuing traveling until his death. In 1967 Borges began a five-year period of collaboration with Norman Thomas di Giovanni, and gained new fame in the English-speaking world. When Juan Perón was again elected president in 1973, Borges resigned as director of the National Library. Despite his opposition to Perón and later to the junta, his support to liberal causes were considered too ambiguous. "If he thinks like a dinosaur, that has nothing to do with my thinking," said once the Chilean poet and Nobel Laureate Pablo Neruda. "He doesn't understand a thing about what's happening in the modern world, and he thinks I don't either." In 1980 Borges signed protests against the political repression and the "disappeared". In 1982 he condemned the Falkland Islands War – "Two bald men fighting over a comb" was his cited comment in the international media.
          Borges, who had long suffered from eye problems, was totally blind in his last decades, but never taught himself Braille. He had a congenital defect that had afflicted several generations on his father's side of the family. However, he continued to publish several books, among them EL LIBRO DE LOS SERES IMAGINARIOS (1967), EL INFORME DE BRODIE (1970), and EL LIBRO DE ARENA (1975). "I need books," he once said. "They mean everything to me." In New Orleas he developed a passion to jazz.
         Borges was married twice. In 1967 he married his old friend, the recently widowed Elsa Asteta Millán, whom he had met decades ago when she was just seventeen. Elsa shared none of his literary interests and the marriage lasted three years. One night at Harvard, Borges was found outside the residence, in his pajamas, because she had locked him out. Since divorce did not exist in Argentina, they entered into a legal separation agreement, and Borges moved back in with his mother. His last years Borges lived with María Kodama, his assistant; they married on 22 April in 1986, though his marriage to Elsa had never been annulled. However, the relationship brought much happiness in the authors life. Kodoma had earlier participated in Borges's Old English study group and earned doctorate in English from the University of Buenos Aires. In 1984 they produced an account of their journeys in different places of the world, with text by Borges and photographs by Kodoma. Borges moved in 1985 permanently to Geneva, Switzerland. Far from Buenos Aires he died there of liver cancer on June 14, 1986, and was buried at the old Plainpalais Cemetery.
         Borges's fictional universe was born from his vast and esoteric readings in literature, philosophy, and theology. He sees man's search for meaning in an infinite universe as a fruitless effort. In the universe of energy, mass, and speed of light, Borges considers the central riddle time, not space. "He believed in an infinite series of times, in a growing, dizzying net of divergent, convergent and parallel times. This network of times which approached one another, forked, broke off, or were unaware of one another for centuries, embraces all possibilities of time." The theological speculations of Gnosticism and the Cabala gave ideas for many of his plots. Borges has told in an interview that when he was a boy, he found an engraving of the seven wonders of the world, one of which portrayed a circular labyrinth. It frightened him and the maze has been one of his recurrent nightmares. "Almost instantly, I understood: 'The garden of forking paths' was the chaotic novel; the phrase 'the various futures (not to all)' suggested to me the forking in time, not in space. A broad rereading of the work confirmed the theory. In all fictional works, each time a man is confronted with several alternatives, he chooses one and eliminates the others; in the fiction of Ts'ui Pên, he chooses – simultaneously – all of them. He creates, in this way, diverse futures, diverse time which themselves also proliferate and fork." (from 'The Garden of Forking Paths')
         Another recurrent image is the mirror, which reflects different identities. The idea for the short story 'Borges y yo' was came from the double, who was looking at him – the alter ego, the other I. There is a well-known man, who writes his stories, a name in some biographical dictionary, and the real person. "So my life is a point-counterpoint, a kind of fugue, and a falling away - and everything winds up being lost to me, and everything falls into oblivion, or into the hands of the other man."
          Influenced by the English philosopher George Berkeley (1685-1753), Borges played with the idea that concrete reality may consist only of mental perceptions. The "real world" is only one possible in the infinite series of realities. These themes were examined among others in the classical short stories 'The Garden of Forking Paths' and 'Death and the Compass', in which Borges showed his fondness of detective formula. In the story the calm, rational detective and adventurer Erik Lönnrot (referring to the philologist/poet Elias Lörnrot, 1802-1884, the collector of Kalevala poems) finds himself trapped in cryptographic labyrinths in a fantastical city, while attempting to solve a series of crimes. However, Borges's Lönnrot has more in common with C. Auguste Dupin, Sherlock Holmes and Father Brown and their amazing powers of deduction than with the Finnish namesake, who traveled in the northwest Russia to collected ancient poems. The Kalevala was created by Lönnrot, edited from poems of his own and a number of separate poems and poem-fragments he had received from rune-singers. In similar way, Erik Lönnrot creates a coherent story from a series of crimes by interpreting cryptic messages and filling the holes with his own insights. Detective stories bring order into chaos. "In this chaotic era of ours," said Borges, "one thing is has humbly maintained the classic virtues: the detective story. For a detective story cannot be understood without a beginning, middle, and end... I would say in defense of the detective novel that it needs no defense; though now read with a certain disdain, it is safeguarding order in an era of disorder." ('The Detective Story', 1978)
         In 'The Library of Babel' the symmetrically structured library represents the universe as it is conceived by rational man, and the library's illegible books refers to man's ignorance. In 'Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius' Borges invented a whole other universe based on an imaginary encyclopedia. The narrator states, that 'Tlön is surely a labyrinth, but it is a labyrinth devised by men, a labyrinth destined to be deciphered by men."
       As an essayist Borges drew on his European education and brought attention to ancient philosophers and mystics, Jewish cabbalist and gnostics, French poets, Cervantes, Dante, Schopenhauer, and above all such English writers as Shakespeare, John Milton, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Thomas De Quincey, H.G. Wells, and G.K. Chesterton. His key books were DISCUSIÓN (1932), HISTORIA DE LA ETERNIDAD (1936), and OTRAS INQUISICIONES (1952). When many Latin American writers dealt with political or social subjects, Borges focused on eternal questions and the literary heritage of the world. However, Borges has criticized his friend Pablo Neruda, a politically highly visible author, for denouncing all the South American dictators except Juan Perón, Borges's own arch-enemy. "Perón was then in power. It seems that Neruda had a lawsuit pending with his publisher in Buenos Aires. That publisher, as you probably know, has always been his principal source of income." (Jorge Luis Borges: Conversations, ed. Richard Burgin, 1998)




For further reading

Paper Tigers: the Ideal Fictions of Jorge Luis Borges by J. Sturrock (1977); Jorge Luis Borges by G.R. McMurray (1980); Jorge Luis Borges by Donald Yates (1985); The Aleph Weaver by Edna Aizenberg (1984); Jorge Luis Borges, ed.  Harold Bloom (1986); The Poetry and Poetics of Jorge Luis Borges by Paul Cheselka (1986); Borges a contraluz by Estela Canto (1989); A Concordance to the Works of Jorge Luis Borges 1899-1986 by Rob Isbister and Peter Standish (1992); Jorge Luis Borges by Beatriz Sarle (1993); A Dictionary of Borges by Evelyn Fishburn and Psiche Hughes (1990); Jorge Luis Borges: Conversations, ed. by Richard Burgin (1998); Borges and His Fiction by Gene H. Bell-Villada (1999)




Selected works

  • FERVOR DE BUENOS AIRES, 1923
  • LUNA DE ENFRENTE, 1923
  • INQUISICIONES, 1925
  • EL TAMAÑO DE MI ESPERANZA, 1926
  • EL IDIOMA DE LOS ARGENTINOS, 1928
  • CUADERNOS SAN MARTÍN, 1929
  • EVARISTO CARRIEGO, 1930 - Evaristo Carriego: A Book about Old-Time Buenos Aires (tr. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, 1984)
  • DISCUSIÓN, 1932
  • LAS KENNIGAR, 1933
  • HISTORIA UNIVERSAL DE LA INFAMIA, 1935 - A Universal History of Infamy (tr. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, 1972) / A Universal History of Iniquity (tr. Andrew Hurley, in Collected Fictions, 1999; translated with an introduction by Andrew Hurley, 2004)
  • HISTORIA DE LA ETERNIDAD, 1936 - A History of Etenity (in Selected Non-Fictions, ed. Eliot Weinberger, 1999) 
  • VIRGINIA WOOLF: UN CUARTO PROPIO, 1936 (translator)
  • VIRGINIA WOOLF: ORLANDO, 1937 (translator)
  • FRANZ KAFKA: LA METAMORFOSIS, 1938 (ed.)
  • WILLIAM FAULKNER: LAS PALMERAS SALVAJES, 1940 (translator)
  • EL JARDÍN DE SENDEROS QUE SE BIFURCAN, 1941 - The Garden of Forking Paths (tr. Andrew Hurley, in Collected Fictions, 1999) 
  • SEIS PROBLEMAS PARA DON ISIDRO PARODI, 1942 (under the pseudonym H. Bustos Domecq, with Adolfo Bioy Cesares) - Six Problems for Don Isidro Parodi (tr. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, 1981)
  • EL JARDIN DE SENDEROS QUE SE BIFURCAN, 1942
  • POEMAS (1922-1943), 1943
  • HERMAN MELVILLE: BARTLEBY, 1943 (translator)
  • FICCIONES (1935-1944), 1944 - Ficciones (edited and witrh an introd. by Anthony Kerrigan, 1962) / Ficciones (edited and introduced by Gordon Brotherston and Peter Hulme, 1976) / Fictions (tr. Andrew Hurley, in Collected Fictions, 1999) / The Library of Babel (engravings by Erik Desmazières, translated by Andrew Hurley, 2000)
  • DOS FANTASÍAS MEMORABLES, 1946 (under the pseudonym H. Bustos Domecq, with Adolfo Bioy Casares)
  • UN MODELO PARA LA MUERTE, 1946 (under the pseudonym B. Suárez Lynch, with Adolfo Bioy Cesares)
  • NUEVA REFUTACÍON DEL TIEMPO, 1947
  • EL ALEPH, 1949 - The Aleph and Other Stories (tr. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, 1970) / The Aleps (tr. Andrew Hurley, in Collected Fictions, 1999) / The Aleph (including the prose fictions from The Maker, translated with an introduction by Andrew Hurley, 2004)
  • ASPECTOS DE LA LITERARA GAUCHESCA, 1950
  • LA MUERTE Y LA BRÚJULA, 1951
  • ANTIGUAS LITERATURAS GERMÁNICAS, 1951 (with Delia Ingenieros)
  • OTRAS INQUISICIONES 1937-1952, 1952 - Other Inquisitions 1937-1952 (tr. Ruth L.C. Simms, 1964)
  • EL "MARTIN FIERRO", 1953 (with Margarita Guerrero)
  • DÍAS DE ODIO, 1954 (screenplay, dir. Leopoldo Torre Nilsson)
  • LOS ORILLEROS, 1955
  • LEOPOLDO LUGONES, 1955 (with Betina Edelberg)
  • MANUAL DE ZOOLOGIA FANTASTICA, 1957 (rev. ed. EL LIBRO DE LOS SERES IMAGINARIOS, 1967) - The Book of Imaginary Beings (tr. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, 1969) / The Imaginary Zoo (tr. Tim Reynolds, 1969) / The Book of Imaginary Beings (translated by Andrew Hurley, 2005) - Kuvitteellisten olentojen kirja (suom. Sari Selander, 2009)
  • OBRAS COMPLETAS, VIII 1954-60
  • LIBRO DEL CIELO Y DEL INFIERNO, 1960
  • EL HACEDOR, 1960 - The Dreamtigers (tr. Mildred Boyer and Harold Morland, 1964) / The Maker (tr. Andrew Hurley, in Collected Fictions, 1999) / Everything and nothing (tr. Donald A. Yates et al., 1999)
  • ANTOLOGÍA PERSONAL, 1961 - A Personal Anthology (tr. Anthony Kerrigan, 1967)
  • Labyrinths; Selected Stories & Other Writings, 1962 (edited by Donald A. Yates & James E. Irby)
  • MACEDONIO FERNÁDEZ, 1963
  • EL OTRO, EL MISMO, 1964
  • OBRAS COMPLETAS III, 1964
  • PARA LAS SEIS CUERDAS, 1965
  • INTRODUCCIÓN A LA LITERATURA INGLESA, 1965 (with María Esther Vázquez) - An Introduction to English Literature (tr. L. Clark Keating and Robert O. Evans, 1974)
  • LITERATURAS GERMÁNICAS MEDIAVALES, 1966 (with María Esther Vásquez)
  • CRÓNICAS DE BUSTOS DOMECQ, 1967 (with Adolfo Bioy Casares) - Chronicles of Bustos Domecq (tr. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, 1976)
  • LA NOCHE QUE EN EL SUR LO VELARON, 1967 - Deathwatch on the Southside (tr. Robert Fitzgerald, 1968)
  • INTRODUCCIÓN A LA LITERATURA NORTEAMERICANA, 1967 (with Esther Zemborain de Torres) - An Introduction to American Literature (tr. Clark Keating and Robert O. Evans, 1971)
  • MUEVA ANTOLOGÍA PERSONAL, 1968
  • ELOGIO DE LA SOMBRA, 1969 - In Praise of Darkness (tr. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, 1974) / In Praise of Darkness (tr. Andrew Hurley, in Collected Fictions, 1999) / Brodie's Report: Including the Prose Fiction from In Praise of Darkness (translated with an introduction by Andrew Hurley, 2005)
  • EL OTRO, EL MISMO, 1969
  • INVASIÓN, 1969 (screenplay, with Adolfo Bioy Casares, Hugo Santiago, dir. Hugo Santiago)
  • EL INFORME DE BRODIE, 1970 - Dr. Brodie's Report (tr. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, 1972) / Brodie's Report (tr. Andrew Hurley, in Collected Fictions, 1999) / Brodie's Report: Including the Prose Fiction from In Praise of Darkness (translated with an introduction by Andrew Hurley, 2005) - Hiekkakirja (suomentanut Pentti Saaritsa, 2003)
  • IL CONGRESSO DEL MONDO, 1972 - The Congress (tr. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, 1974) / The Congress of the World (tr. Alberto Manguel, 1981)
  • EL ORO DE LOS TIGRES, 1972 - The Gold of Tigers (tr. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, in The Book of Sand, 1975) / The Gold of the Tigers: Selected Later Poems: A Bilingual Edition (translated by Alastair Reid, 1977)
  • Borges on Writing, 1973 (edited by Norman Thomas di Giovanni, Daniel Halpern, and Frank MacShane)
  • SIETE CONVERSACIONES CON JORGE LUIS BORGES, 1973 (with Fernand0 Sorrentino) - Seven Conversations with Jorge Luis Borges (tr. Clark M. Zlotchew, 1982)
  • OBRAS COMPLETAS, 1974 (ed. Carlos V. Frías)
  • EL LIBRO DE ARENA, 1975 - The Book of Sand (tr. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, 1977) / The Book of Sand (tr. Andrew Hurley, in Collected Fictions, 1999) - Hiekkakirja (suomentanut Pentti Saaritsa, 2003)
  • LA ROSA PROFUNDA, 1975
  • PRÓLOGOS CON UN PRÓLOGO DE PRÓLOGOS, 1975
  • LA MONEDA DE HIERRO, 1976
  • LIBRO DE SUEÑOS, 1976
  • ANDROGUÉ, 1977
  • ASESINOS DE PAPEL, 1977
  • HISTORIA DE LA NOCHE, 1977
  • LA ROSA DE PARACELSO, 1977
  • NUEVOS CUENTOS DE BUSTOS DOMECQ, 1977 (with Adolfo Bioy Casares)
  • TIGRES AZULES, 1977
  • NORAH, 1977 (with Norah Borges)
  • OBRA POÉTICA, 1964-1978 (6 vols.)
  • OBRAS COMPLETAS EN COLABORARACIÓN, 1979
  • NARRACIONES, 1980 (ed. Marcos Ricardo Barnatán)
  • PROSA COMPLETA, 1980 (2 vols.)
  • SIETE NOCHES, 1980 - Seven Nights (tr. Eliot Weinberger, 1984)
  • LA CIFRA, 1981
  • NUEVE ENSAYOS DANTESCOS, 1982
  • VEINTICINCO AGOSTO DE 1983 Y OTROS CUENTOS, 1983 - Shakespeare's Memory (tr. Andrew Hurley, in Collected Fictions, 1999)
  • OBRA POETICA, 1923-1977, 1983
  • Y OTROS CUENTOS, 1983
  • ALTAS, 1984 (with María Kodoma) - Atlas (tr. Anthony Kerrigan, 1985)
  • LOS CONJURADOS, 1985
  • TEXTOS CAUTIVOS, 1986 (ed. Enrique Socerio-Gari and Emir Rodríguez Monegal)
  • EL ALEPH BORGIANO, 1987
  • BORGES, EL JUDAISMO E ISRAEL, 1988
  • PÁGINAS ESCOGIDAS, 1988 (ed. Roberto Fernández Retamar)
  • BIBLIOTECA PERSONAL: PRÓLOGOS, 1988
  • OBRAS COMPLETAS 1975-1985, 1989 - Shakespeare's Memory (tr. Andrew Hurley, in Collected Fictions, 1999)
  • Selected Poems, 1998 (edited by Alexander Coleman)
  • Collected Fictions, 1998 (tr. Andrew Hurley)
  • Selected Non-Fictions, 1999 (ed. Eliot Weinberger, tr. Esther Allen, Suzanne Jill Levine, Eliot Weinberger)
  • BORGES POR ÉL MISMO: POEMAS, 1999
  • CORRESPONDENCIA, 1922-1939, 2000 (ed. Carlos García)
  • This Craft Verse, 2000 (ed. Calin-Andrei Mihailescu)
  • TEXTOS RECOBRADOS, 2002
  • OBRAS COMPLETAS: EDICIÓN CRÍTICA. 1. 1923-1949, 2009 (ed. Rolando Costa Picazo)
  • OBRAS COMPLETAS: EDICIÓN CRÍTICA. 2. 1952-1972, 2010 (ed. Rolando Costa Picazo)

http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/jlborges.htm