martes, 22 de marzo de 2016

Andrew Wyeth

Andrew Wyeth
Poster by T.A.

Andrew Wyeth 

(1917 - 2009)

Andrew Wyeth, son of N.C. Wyeth, was a 20th century painter known for his realism in portraiture and pastorals, as seen in the iconic "Christina's World."


Born on July 12, 1917, in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, Andrew Wyeth received tutelage from his artist father and garnered fame for his own works, taking to egg tempera techniques. He became an internationally exhibited, award-winning artist with pieces like "Christina's World," "A Crow Flew By" and "The Clearing," as well as the portrait series "The Helga Pictures." Wyeth died in Chadds Ford on January 16, 2009.
Sea Boots, 1976


Andrew Newell Wyeth III was born on July 12, 1917, in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, the youngest of five siblings had by mother Carolyn and father N.C. Wyeth, the famed illustrator. N.C. was a major, sometimes frightening presence in the household who guided his son's artistic talents and skill.
Andrew, who would do earlier work submitted under his father's name, took to painting using regular watercolor and dry-brush watercolor techniques, eventually adopting the tempera method. In 1936, Anrdew Wyeth had his first showing at the Art Alliance of Philadelphia; the following year, he had his debut one-man show at New York City's Macbeth Galley, where all of the pieces were immediately sold.
Wyeth wed Betsey James at the start of the new decade. Fusing personal and professional worlds, she would become his business manager and take an active interest in shaping his public image.
Christina's World, 1948
by Andrew Wyeth
The Museum of Modern Art
New York, 2012
Photo by Triunfo Arciniegas

'Christina's World'

Wyeth garnered major acclaim with his 1948 piece, "Christina's World," showcasing a friend of Betsey's who had been stricken with polio making her way across a field without a wheelchair. He became known for both vivid landscapes and portraiture, sometimes fusing the two. Other works among scores included "Trodden Weed" (1951), "Up in the Studio" (1965; featuring his sister Carolyn), "French Twist" (1967), "The Clearing" (1979) and "The Carry" (2003).
Many of Wyeth's subjects were neighbors and locales in his surrounding area, as he generally kept close to home. Wyeth became famed for the quality of realism and detail found in his art, often creating moody pastorals, while also being blasted by some critics for his lack of avant-garde cred.
Nonetheless, exhibitions of his art, which were shown internationally, often brought in record numbers of museum visitors. Wyeth also went on to receive many honors. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963 and later received the Congressional Gold Medal in 1990 from President George H.W. Bush, the first artist to receive the award.

'The Helga Pictures'

In 1986, it was revealed that Wyeth had been painting more than 200 clothed and nude portraits of German neighbor Helga Testorff over the past decade and a half. The works were the subject of a Times cover and would be shown in Washington, D.C., at the National Gallery of Art, eventually being sold for millions to an art aficionado from Japan.
Wyeth died on January 16, 2009, at the age of 91, in the town of his birth. Among the legion of books on his life and work are The Helga Pictures(1987), Andrew Wyeth: Autobiography (1995) and Andrew Wyeth: Memory & Magic (2005).
Andrew Wyeth
Poster by T.A.

Andrew Wyeth, one of the most popular and also most lambasted artists in the history of American art, a reclusive linchpin in a colorful family dynasty of artists whose precise realist views of hardscrabble rural life became icons of national culture and sparked endless debates about the nature of modern art, died Friday at his home in Chadds Ford, Pa. He was 91.
He died in his sleep, said Hillary Holland, a spokeswoman for the Brandywine River Museum, The Associated Press reported.
Wyeth gave America a prim and flinty view of Puritan rectitude, starchily sentimental, through parched gray and brown pictures of spooky frame houses, desiccated fields, deserted beaches, circling buzzards and craggy-faced New Englanders. A virtual Rorschach test for American culture during the better part of the last century, Wyeth split public opinion as vigorously as, and probably even more so than, any other American painter including the other modern Andy, Warhol, whose milieu was as urban as Wyeth’s was rural.
Because of his popularity, a bad sign to many art world insiders, Wyeth came to represent middle-class values and ideals that modernism claimed to reject, so that arguments about his work extended beyond painting to societal splits along class, geographical and educational lines. One art historian, in response to a 1977 survey in Art News magazine about the most underrated and overrated artists of the century, nominated Wyeth for both categories.
Art critics mostly heaped abuse on his work, saying he gave realism a bad name. Supporters said he spoke to the silent majority who jammed his exhibitions. “In today’s scrambled-egg school of art, Wyeth stands out as a wild-eyed radical,” one journalist wrote in 1963, speaking for the masses. “For the people he paints wear their noses in the usual place, and the weathered barns and bare-limbed trees in his starkly simple landscapes are more real than reality.”
John Updike took up the same cause 25 years later: “In the heyday of Abstract Expressionism, the scorn was simple gallery politics; but resistance to Wyeth remains curiously stiff in an art world that has no trouble making room for Photorealists like Richard Estes and Philip Pearlstein and graduates of commercial art like Wayne Thiebaud, Andy Warhol, and for that matter, Edward Hopper.”
A minority opinion within the art world always tried to reconcile Wyeth with mainstream modernism. It was occasionally argued, among other things, that his work had an abstract component and was linked to the gestural style of artists like Kline, de Kooning and Pollock, for whom Wyeth expressed general disdain. It is true that especially some of the early watercolors of the 30’s and 40’s, in a looser style, inclined toward abstraction. Contrary to what detractors and some supporters said, his style vacillated over the years, which suited neither those who wanted to say he stayed in a rut his whole career nor those who championed him as a model, as one art historian put it, “of continuity and permanence in the face of instabilities and uncertainties of modern life.”
Wyeth remained a polarizing figure even as the traditional 20th century distinction between abstraction and avant-gardism on the one hand and realism and conservatism on the other came to seem woefully inadequate and false. The only indisputable truth was that his art existed within a diverse American context that encompassed illustrators like his father, N.C. Wyeth and Norman Rockwell, and also landscape painters like John Marin, Winslow Homer, Albert Bierstadt and Fitz Hugh Lane.
One picture encapsulated his fame. “Christina’s World” became an American icon like Grant Wood’s “American Gothic,” or Whistler’s portrait of his mother or Emmanuel Leutze’s “Washington Crossing the Delaware.” Wyeth said he thought the work was “a complete flat tire” when he originally sent it off to the Macbeth Gallery in Manhattan in 1948. The Museum of Modern Art bought it for $1,800.


“Christina’s World,” 1948, by Andrew Wyeth. CreditMuseum of Modern Art

Wyeth had seen Christina Olson, crippled from the waist down, dragging herself across a Maine field, “like a crab on a New England shore,” he recalled. To him she was a model of dignity who refused to use a wheelchair and preferred to live in squalor rather than be beholden to anyone. It was dignity of a particularly dour, hardened, misanthropic sort, to which Wyeth throughout his career seemed to gravitate. Olson is shown in the picture from the back. She was 55 at the time. (She died 20 years later, having become a frequent subject in his art; her death made the national news thanks to Wyeth’s popularity.)
It is impossible to tell her age in the painting or what she looks like, the ambiguity adding to the overall mystery. So does the house, which Wyeth called a dry-bone skeleton of a building, a symbol during the Depression of the American pastoral dream in a minor key, the house’s whitewash of paint long gone, its shingles warped, the place isolated against a blank sky. As popular paintings go, “Christina’s World” is remarkable for being so dark and humorless, yet the public seemed to focus less on its gothic and morose quality and more on the way Wyeth painted each blade of grass, a mechanical and unremarkable kind of realism that was distinctive if only for going against the rising tide of abstraction in America in the late 1940’s.

“Oftentimes people will like a picture I paint because it’s maybe the sun hitting on the side of a window and they can enjoy it purely for itself,” Wyeth once said. “It reminds them of some afternoon. But for me, behind that picture could be a night of moonlight when I’ve been in some house in Maine, a night of some terrible tension, or I had this strange mood. Maybe it was Halloween. It’s all there, hiding behind the realistic side.”
He also said: “I think the great weakness in most of my work is subject matter. There’s too much of it.”
Nonetheless, the perception of Wyeth’s art as an alternative to abstraction accounted for a good portion of its enduring popularity during the mid-years of the last century. Added to this was his personality: self-theatricalizing (his biographer, Richard Meryman, described him as a “self-promoter” and a “closet showman”), Wyeth was not a bohemian, or at least he behaved contrary to the cliché of the bohemian artist. He was also a vocal patriot, which endeared him to some quarters during the Cold War and dovetailed with a general sense that his art evoked a mythic rural past embedded in the American psyche. “America’s absolutely it,” he once said.
Never mind that he painted mostly bleak portraits of a barren country: he stayed in the public imagination for nostalgic paintings like “Young America,” from 1950, of a boy cycling across a plain, which Wyeth in an interview in Time magazine related to “the plains of the Little Bighorn and Custer and Daniel Boone and a lot of other things.”

Wind from the sea, 1947

In later years, the press noted when he voted for Nixon and Reagan, not because he was a particularly outspoken partisan in his political views but because he differed in those views from other artists who were very outspoken at the time. Bucking the liberal art establishment, and making a fortune in the process, allowed him to play familiar American roles: the reactionary antiestablishmentarian and the free-thinking individualist who at the same time represented the vox populi. A favorite saying of his was: “What you have to do is break all the rules.” And as bohemianism itself became institutionalized, Wyeth encapsulated the artistic conservatives’ paradoxical idea of cultural disobedience through traditional behavior.
Wyeth’s admirers made a point of tracing his roots deep into the American past, to Nicholas Wyeth, who emigrated from England to Cambridge, Mass., in 1645. Wyeths died fighting in the French and Indian War. Andrew Newell Wyeth III was born on July 12, 1917, in Chadds Ford, Penn., the fifth child of Carolyn and Newell Convers Wyeth, the great illustrator. Famous for his blood-and-thunder magazine illustrations, posters, advertisements and illustrations for “Treasure Island,” “Robin Hood,” “The Last of the Mohicans” and “Robinson Crusoe,” which sold in the millions of copies, N.C. Wyeth became a role model, teacher and inevitable point of comparison in Andrew’s pursuit of his own career as an artist. The situation repeated itself a generation later when Jamie followed his father Andrew as an artist.
N.C. was a big man with tremendous energy, a kindly tyrant as a father, according to his children, who also remembered him for his flash temper. He created a hothouse environment in which Andrew, a frail boy who came down with one after another illness, was taught at home. His life was both sheltered and obsessively focused. He learned to be a proficient draftsman before he learned to read well. By his teens, he was doing illustrations under his father’s name. Nevertheless, he resisted the goal that his father had for him of becoming an illustrator.
“Pa kept me almost in a jail,” Wyeth recalled, “just kept me to himself in my own world, and he wouldn’t let anyone in on it. I was almost made to stay in Sherwood Forest with Maid Marion and the rebels.”


Andrew Wyeth in Chadds Ford, Pa., 1997.CreditSara Krulwich/The New York Times

By the 1920’s, N.C. Wyeth had become a huge celebrity visited by other celebrities like F. Scott Fitzgerald and Mary Pickford. The insularity, the familial competition, the theatrical personalities in and around the house, the atmosphere of commercial success and popular fame with its taint of artistic compromise — the presumption that realistic representation was intrinsically a virtue: all these factors shaped Andrew Wyeth’s life and evolution.
While he admired his father’s intensity, which he hoped to match, his imagery differed from his father’s. N.C.’s work was full of action and drama. Andrew’s work often had no people in it. He painted snowy landscapes under leaden skies, a barn with a door ajar, an abandoned house, tire tracks, a wedding tent in an empty field, fishermen’s nets hung to dry in the breeze: images of absence, silence, loss, abandonment, desolation but also expectation. One of his famous paintings was a God’s eye view of soaring turkey buzzards. Another showed an empty dory on a beach with a swallow swooping past.
He liked the idea that figures might be implicit in the image. He suggested that “Christina’s World” might have been better had he “painted just that field and have you sense Christina without her being there.” Occasionally, as when he painted Christina head-on, he turned her face into a kind of landscape, the weathered features being a topography.
His subjects were family, friends and his immediate surroundings in Pennsylvania and in Maine, the reflections of the circumscribed existence he chose for himself. Repeatedly he painted, besides Christina, his friend Walt Anderson; Ben Loper, a black handyman, who posed for “A Crow Flew By,” and Karl and Anna Kuerner, neighbors whose farm became the Pennsylvania counterpoint to the Olson’s place in Maine. Karl was an avid hunter and a former German machine-gunner in World War I who died in 1979, at 80. There were rumors that he was a Nazi sympathizer, which drove Wyeth during World War II to search the Kuerner house for a wireless spy transmitter.
Wyeth said he was intrigued by the combination of cozy domesticity at the Kuerners’ and the knowledge that Karl had gunned down soldiers. One portrait of Karl shows him cradling a rifle. It was done in a room at the house with a moose rack on the wall. Wyeth recalled that while he was painting Anna walking into the room to summon her husband to dinner, the barrel pointing directly at her. He quickly rubbed out the antlers and painted her in. Wyeth’s wife later titled it “America’s Sweethearts.”
Wyeth described several other portraits of Karl as surrogate portraits of N.C., whom he had never painted. His father died in 1945 with a grandson, Newell, the four-year-old son of N.C.’s son Nathaniel and daughter-in-law Caroline, when their car stalled on a railroad crossing. It was struck by a train, an event that Wyeth linked to such melancholic and metaphoric pictures as “Winter,” of 1945. “The German,” a portrait of Kuerner in a helmet, was painted in 1975 when he was dying of cancer. Wyeth said he was painting cold eyes “that have looked down a machine-gun barrel, squinted great distances,” adding, “those are my father’s lips — cruel.”
The young Wyeth’s hero, after his father, was Winslow Homer. He saw Homer’s watercolors in the early 1930’s. At the time he was painting laborers and landscapes in ways that related to American scene painters like Thomas Hart Benton and John Steuart Curry but increasingly he emulated Homer’s impressionistic watercolors. He moved to Maine, made a pilgrimage to Homer’s studio at Prout’s Neck, and the vigorous, shimmering watercolors he began to paint aspired to Homer’s fleeting effects of light and movement.
He first showed them at the Art Alliance of Philadelphia in 1936. His father picked the works for him. The next year, through an associate of his father’s, the Macbeth Gallery in New York gave him his first one-man show, which sold out at the opening. Wyeth made $500. At the same time he began to work in egg tempera, a technique that appealed to his fastidious, traditional and tight-lipped side, with its dry, chalky, ghostly effects. His father was skeptical about the medium, but Wyeth was encouraged to pursue it by a strong-willed 17-year-old woman he met in 1939 in Maine. Betsy James grew up picking nasturtiums from Christina Olson’s garden and playing in the Olson’s ice-house. On meeting Wyeth she took him immediately to see the Olson house. “I wanted to see if he would go in,” she recounted. “A lot of people wouldn’t — the smell, the odor — and this was a summer day.”
They were married in 1940 and Betsy became his business manager and as strong an influence on him as his father, with whom she often battled for Andrew’s favor. “I was part of a conspiracy to dethrone the king — the usurper of the throne,” she told Mr. Meryman, Wyeth’s biographer. “And I did. I put Andrew on the throne.” She oversaw the publication of illustrated books, started a reproduction business, produced a film documentary about Wyeth and created a Wyeth archive. Over the years, especially concerning the so-called Helga paintings, she also aggravated critics who thought she manipulated Wyeth’s image inappropriately, an impression underscored by remarks like, “I’m a director and I had the greatest actor in the world.”
After “Christina’s World” Wyeth’s fame skyrocketed. In 1949, Winston Churchill asked for Wyeth watercolors to decorate his room at the Ritz-Carlton in Boston. Harvard gave Wyeth an honorary degree in 1955. He made the cover of Time in 1963 when President Johnson gave him the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He painted portraits of Presidents Eisenhower and Nixon. A show of his work toured the country in 1966 and 1967, attracting huge crowds at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, the Whitney Museum and the Art Institute of Chicago. The Brandywine River Museum in Pennsylvania opened in 1971, its main attraction a collection of Wyeths, donated by Mrs. Wyeth. In 1976, Wyeth was given a retrospective at the Metropolitan Museum.


Wyeth’s “Trodden Weed,” 1951.CreditAndrew Wyeth/Philadelpia Museum of Art

Prices for his temperas escalated to $100,000 in 1962, triple that by 1980. And later during the 80’s, Japanese collectors were paying more than $1 million for a Wyeth.
In 1986, Leonard E. B. Andrews, a Pennsylvania publisher of newsletters, among them Swine Flu Litigation Reporter, made front-page news reportedly spending $6 million for 240 paintings by Wyeth that had never been exhibited. They were pictures of a woman, nude and clothed, named Helga Testorf. She was a sturdy blond married mother of four, a postwar refugee from Germany who worked as a housemaid to Wyeth’s eccentric sister Carolyn in Chadds Ford. Wyeth had been painting her in a room at the Kuerner house for more than a decade, without his wife’s knowledge, his wife said, before the works became known. When asked what the pictures were about, Mrs. Wyeth fueled prurient speculation by saying, “love.”

Big money, the implication of sex and Wyeth’s celebrity propelled Helga onto the covers of Time and Newsweek. The National Gallery of Art in Washington, which rarely organized shows of living artists, leapt to do an exhibition of the Helga pictures in 1987. The catalogue, with reproductions of Wyeth’s soft-core renditions of his recumbent model, became a Book-of-the-Month Club best seller.
Mr. Andrews quickly turned around and sold the works and a few others to a Japanese collector reportedly for $45 million, capitalizing on the publicity he had helped to orchestrate and on the National Gallery’s prestige. J. Carter Brown, the gallery’s director, having attracted hundreds of thousands of people to the show thanks to the hoopla, then professed to be shocked by Mr. Andrew’s profiteering.
At that point, Wyeth denied there was ever any sexual relationship. Mrs. Wyeth explained that “love” was meant only to suggest the creative frisson between artist and model and that in fact she had seen a few of the works before, so they did not entirely come as a surprise, while maintaining that most of them really had been kept secret from her — that they were her husband’s way of breaking loose from her and were genuinely upsetting to their marriage.
Critics lambasted the Wyeths and Mr. Andrews as hucksters. Wyeth, horrified, responded by saying the critics “were just looking to bop me on the head.”

Later Wyeth exhibitions were comparatively low key, and caused less of a fuss, perhaps also because an increasingly eclectic art world, which celebrated Norman Rockwell, found space to accommodate painters like Wyeth. In later years, he became a familiar sight around Chadds Ford, driving his beat-up GMC Suburban through the fields and riverbeds with a sketch pad on the seat. Menus at the inn in Chadds Ford, where he had his regular seat at a corner table, were decorated with his sketches of Washington and Lafayette.
He lost a lung, survived a near-fatal illness, and had a hip operation, but kept working, energized partly by disdain for his detractors. “I’m not going to let them disrupt my old age,” he said.
“I am an example of publicity — a great deal of it,” he also said. “I’m grateful because it gives me the freedom to go and try to do better. But I never had any great idea that these people are understanding what I’m doing. And they don’t.”
Wyeth added: “Let’s be sensible about this. I put a lot of things into my work which are very personal to me. So how can the public feel these things? I think most people get to my work through the back door. They’re attracted by the realism and they sense the emotion and the abstraction — and eventually, I hope, they get their own powerful emotion.”


jueves, 10 de marzo de 2016


Shakira HD musica marron gris chicas escritorio hd 169  retratos famosos


Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll

Shakira is a Colombian singer-songwriter, musician, record producer and dancer. She is one of Latin America’s top stars and is very popular internationally. She is the highest-selling Colombian artist of all time. She has sold more than 50 million albums worldwide, and has won numerous awards. She is also the only South American singer to have a number one record in the USA.

Shakira was born in 1977 in Colombia. Her mother is of Spanish and Italian ancestry, and her father is of Lebanese descent. She speaks fluent Spanish, English, Portuguese and Italian, and a little Arabic. Shakira was an outstanding student at school. Reports are she has an IQ of 140. She grew up writing poems on a typewriter she got as a Christmas gift.

Shakira wanted to perform from the age of four. She danced at school every Friday and her classmates nicknamed her "belly dancer girl". She said: "That's how I discovered my passion for live performance." Aged 13, she signed a three-album contract with Sony Music. The first two flopped; but the third, ‘Pies Descalzos’ sold over five million copies and made her a star.

Shakira crossed over into singing in English. Her 2001 album ‘Laundry Service’ sold 13 million copies and established her as an international phenomenon. Gabriel García Marquez asked her to write the songs for the movie ‘Love in the Time of Cholera’. Shakira has written the lyrics to every song she has recorded, bar two. She describes herself as a perfectionist.


Shakira Colombian singer-songwriter and dancer

Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll (pronounced; born February 2, 1977) known mononymously as Shakira English ,Spanish:, is a Colombian singer-songwriter, dancer, record producer, choreographer and model who emerged in the music scene of Colombia and Latin America in the early 1990s. Born and raised in Barranquilla, Shakira began performing in school, demonstrating her vocal ability with rock and roll, Latin and Arabic influences with her own original twist on belly dancing. Shakira is a native Spanish speaker who speaks fluent English and Portuguese, as well as some Italian, French, and Catalan.

After a poor commercial reception with local producers on her first two albums, and being little-known outside Colombia, Shakira decided to produce her own brand of music. In 1995 she released Pies Descalzos, which brought her to prominence in Latin America and Spain; her 1998 album, Dónde Están los Ladrones?, was a critical success selling over 7 million copies worldwide.

In 2001, aided by the worldwide success of her first English single “Whenever, Wherever” that became the best selling single of 2002, she broke through into the English-speaking world with the release of Laundry Service, which sold over 15 million copies worldwide. Four years later, Shakira released two album projects called Fijación Oral Vol. 1 and Oral Fixation Vol. 2. Both reinforced her success, particularly with the best selling song of the 2000s, “Hips Don’t Lie”. In 1997, Shakira founded the Pies Descalzos Foundation. It is a Colombian charity with special schools for poor children all around Colombia. During her career, Shakira has performed at a large number of benefit concerts. Among the most famous are the Live 8 benefit concert in July 2005, the Live Earth concert, Hamburg where she headlined the show, as well as the “Clinton Global Initiative” created by former US President Bill Clinton. She was also invited to the Oval Office by President Barack Obama in February 2010 to discuss early childhood development.

Shakira has won many awards. She has her own star for Hollywood Walk Of Fame, won five MTV Video Music Awards, won two Grammy Awards, eight Latin Grammy Awards, seven Billboard Music Award, twenty-eight Billboard Latin Music Awards and has been Golden Globe-nominated. She is also the highest-selling Colombian artist of all time, and the second most successful female Latin singer behind Gloria Estefan, having sold between 50 to more 60 million albums. Her U.S. album sales stand at 9.9 million. In the fall of 2009, Shakira released her sixth studio album She Wolf worldwide gaining a lot of critical praise for her eccentricity and writing skills. The album sold roughly 2 million copies around the world. Shakira’s “Waka Waka (This Time for Africa)”, was chosen as the official song for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The song has received generally positive critical reception, and has become a worldwide hit and the biggest selling World Cup song of all time. On YouTube, the English version of the music video is the 5th most watched video of all time with over 500 million views. When she released her seventh studio album, the bilingual Sale el Sol in October 2010, she gained back her Latin following, which Shakira described as being the main goal for the album. The album has sold over 4 million copies worldwide. Since 2009, Shakira’s musical career suffered from a strained relationship with her label Epic Records, which resulted in lack of promotion and investment from Epic Records towards her two latter studio albums She Wolf (2009) and Sale el Sol (2010).


Music and voice

Shakira is known to have adopted many genres, including folk, mainstream pop and rock. In an interview with Rolling Stoneshe said: "My music, I think, is a fusion of many different elements. And I'm always experimenting. So I try not to limit myself, or put myself in a category, or... be the architect of my own jail". Her earlier Spanish albums, including Pies Descalzos and Dónde Están los Ladrones? were a mix of folk music and Latin rock, while her cross-over English album,Laundry Service and her later albums were influenced by pop rock and pop Latino. Her 2009 album, She Wolf is more like electropop and dance music. Her 2010 album, Sale el Sol, is a return to her beginnings containing ballads such as "Lo Que Más" and "Antes de las Seis", rock songs like "Tu Boca" and "Devoción", and Latin dance songs like "Loca". Shakira possesses a contralto vocal range.


Álbumes de estudio 

1996: Pies descalzos

1998: ¿Dónde están los ladrones?

2001: Servicio de lavandería
2005: Fijación oral vol. 1
2005: Fijación oral vol. 2
2009: Loba
2010: Sale el sol
2013: Octavo álbum de estudio 
Álbumes recopilatorios 
1997: The Remixes
2002: Colección de Oro
2002: Laundry Service
2002: Grandes Éxitos
2006: Oral Fixation Volumes 1 & 2

Álbumes en vivo 

2000: MTV Unplugged
2004: Live & Off the Record
2007: Oral Fixation Tour
2011: Shakira: En vivo desde París

Primeros álbumes 

1991: Magia
1993: Peligro EP 
2003: The Pepsi E.P. 
2007: Love in the Time of Cholera


"Lejos de tu amor" 
"Esta noche voy contigo" 
"Tú serás la historia de mi vida" 
"¿Dónde estás corazón?" 
"Estoy aquí" 
"Un poco de amor" 
"Pies descalzos, sueños blancos" 
"Se quiere, se mata" 
"Ciega, sordomuda" 
"Ojos Así" 
"Si te vas" 
"Moscas en la casa" 
"No creo" 
"Whenever, Wherever/Suerte" 
"Underneath Your Clothes" 
"Te dejo Madrid" 
"Objection / Te Aviso, Te Anuncio" 
"Que me quedes tú" 
"The One" 

"Poem to a horse" 
"La tortura" (con Alejandro Sanz) 
"No" (con Gustavo Cerati) 
"Don't Bother" 
"Illegal" (con Carlos Santana) 
"Día de enero" 
"La Pared" 
"Hips Don't Lie/Las caderas no mienten" (con Wyclef Jean) 
"Te lo agradezco, pero no"
(de Alejandro Sanz) 
"Beautiful Liar" (de Beyoncé) 
"Pure Intuition / Las De La Intuición" 
"Hay amores" 
"She Wolf/Loba" 
"Did It Again/Lo hecho está hecho" 
"Give It Up to Me" (con Lil Wayne) 
"Waka Waka (This Time for África)/Waka Waka (Esto es África)" 
"Loca" (con Dizzee Rascal /El Cata ) 
"Sale el sol" 
"Rabiosa" (con Pitbull / El Cata) 
"Antes de las Seis" 
"Addicted to You" 
"Get It Started" (de Pitbull) 

Giras musicales 

1996-1997: Tour Pies Descalzos
2000: Tour Anfibio
2002-2003: Tour de la Mangosta
2006-2007: Tour Fijación Oral
2010-2011: Sale el Sol World Tour


Krohn, Katherine (2007) (en inglés). Biography Shakira. Twenty-First Century Books. 
Diego, Ximena (2001) (en inglés). Shakira: Woman Full of Grace. Touchstone. 
Rivera, Ursula (2003) (en inglés). Shakira (High Interest Books). Children's Press.
Sánchez, María (2007) (en español). Shakira (Spanish Edition). Debolsillo. 
Wilson, Wayne (2001) (en inglés). Shakira (Real-Life Reader Biography). Mitchell Lane Publishers.  
Babion-Collet, Arnaud (2007) (en francés). Shakira : La Bomba Latina. Editions de la Lagune.  
Tomas, Tomas (2007) (en francés). Shakira - La star grand coeur. Editions ESI. 
Thatcher Murcia, Rebecca (2007) (en inglés). Shakira (Blue Banner Biographies). Mitchell Lane Publishers. 
Day, Holly (2007) (en inglés). Shakira (People in the News). Lucent.  
Williams, Zella (2010) (en inglés). Shakira: Star Singer (Hispanic Headliners). PowerKids Press. 
Lee, Anabel (2000) (en español). Shakira Diosa De La Luz. La Máscara.  

Rando, Phil (2003) (en francés). Shakira, l'ange de Colombie. Favre. 

Reinaldo Arenas

Reinaldo Arenas

Reinaldo Arenas 

(1943 - 1990)

Reinaldo Arenas (July 16, 1943 – December 7, 1990) was a Cuban poet, novelist, and playwright who despite his early sympathy for the 1959 revolution, grew critical of and then rebelled against the Cuban government.

Arenas was born in the countryside, in the northern part of the Province of Oriente, Cuba, and later moved to the city of Holguín. In 1963, he moved to Havana to enroll in the School of Planification and, later, in the Faculty of Letters at the Universidad de La Habana, where he studied philosophy and literature without completing a degree. The following year, he began working at the Biblioteca Nacional José Martí. While there, his talent was noticed and he was awarded prizes at Cirilo Villaverde National Competition held by UNEAC (National Union of Cuban Writers and Artists). His Hallucinations was awarded “first Honorable Mention” in 1966 although, as the judges could find no better entry, no First Prize was awarded that year.

His writings and openly gay lifestyle were, by 1967, bringing him into conflict with the Communist government. He left the Biblioteca Nacional and became an editor for the Cuban Book Institute until 1968. From 1968 to 1974 he was a journalist and editor for the literary magazine La Gaceta de Cuba. In 1973, he was sent to prison after being charged and convicted of ‘ideological deviation’ and for publishing abroad without official consent. He escaped from prison and tried to leave Cuba by launching himself from the shore on a tire inner tube. The attempt failed and he was rearrested near Lenin Park and imprisoned at the notorious El Morro Castle alongside murderers and rapists. He survived by helping the inmates to write letters to wives and lovers. He was able to collect enough paper this way to continue his writing. However, his attempts to smuggle his work out of prison were discovered and he was severely punished. Threatened with death, he was forced to renounce his work and was released in 1976.In 1980, as part of the Mariel Boatlift, he fled to the United States. He came on the boat San Lazaro captained by Cuban immigrant Roberto Aguero.

Despite his short life and the hardships imposed during his imprisonment, Arenas produced a significant body of work. In addition to significant poetic efforts (“El Central”, “Leprosorio”), his Pentagonia is a set of five novels that comprise a “secret history” of post-revolutionary Cuba. It includes Singing from the Well (in Spanish also titled “Celestino before Dawn”), Farewell to the Sea (whose literal translation is “The Sea Once More”), Palace of the White Skunks, the Rabelaisian Color of Summer, and The Assault. In these novels Arenas’ style ranges from a stark realist narrative and high modernist experimental prose to absurd, satiric humor. His second novel, Hallucinations (“El Mundo Alucinante”), rewrites the story of the colonial dissident priest Fray Servando Teresa de Mier.

His autobiography, Before Night Falls was on the New York Times list of the ten best books of the year in 1993. In 2000 this work was made into a film, directed by Julian Schnabel, in which Arenas was played by Javier Bardem. An opera based on the autobiography with libretto and music by Cuban-American composer Jorge Martin was premiered by the Fort Worth Opera on May 29, 2010, with baritone Wes Mason singing the role of Reinaldo Arenas. He is related to Gilbert, Javier, Armando Arenas. And is also related to Hamzah Salaam.

In 1987, Arenas was diagnosed with AIDS, but he continued to write and speak out against the Cuban government. He mentored many Cuban exile writers, including John O’Donnell-Rosales. After battling AIDS, Arenas committed suicide by taking an overdose of drugs and alcohol on December 7, 1990, in New York. In a suicide letter written for publication, Arenas wrote: “Due to my delicate state of health and to the terrible it causes me not to be able to continue writing and struggling for the freedom of Cuba, I am ending my life. . . . I want to encourage the Cuban people out of the country as well as on the Island to continue fighting for freedom. . . Cuba will be free. I already am.”

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Reinaldo Arenas

Reinaldo Arenas, 47, Writer Who Fled Cuba, Dies

Published: December 9, 1990

Reinaldo Arenas, a novelist who spent several years in prison in Cuba under Fidel Castro, committed suicide on Friday in his apartment in Manhattan, the police said. The 47-year-old author was suffering from AIDS, his literary agent, Thomas Colchie, said.

Mr. Colchie learned of the death of Mr. Arenas when he tried to reach the author to tell him that a fellow Cuban who admired his work had offered to take him to Florida for his remaining days. "Reinaldo told me he did not want to go back into the hospital; he wanted to spend his last days at the beach," Mr. Colchie said. "When I tried to tell him that his wish had been granted, it was too late."

After a decade of struggling to become a successful writer in the United States, to which he escaped during the Mariel exodus from Cuba in 1980, Mr. Arenas at his death had five novels under contract as well as a recently completed autobiography.

Mr. Arenas's works were not always easy going, leading one reviewer to say they were "in the sardonic nightmare tradition" of Francisco Gomez de Quevedo y Villegas, the picaresque 17th-century Spanish novelist, and of Goya, whose "black paintings" were of macabre subjects. Reviewing the novel "Farewell to the Sea" in The New York Times, Jay Cantor wrote: "Mr. Arenas is not interested in ordinary realistic drama. He wants to give the reader the secret history of the emotions, the sustaining victories of pleasure and the small dishonesties that callous the soul." Teen-Age Revolutionary

Born in the rural Oriente province of Cuba on July 16, 1943, Mr. Arenas began writing as a child. He joined Castro's revolution as a teen-ager and moved to Havana in 1961. He was a researcher in the Jose Marti National Library from 1963 to 1968.

In 1965, his novel "Singing From the Well," was awarded first honorable mention by a committee of judges headed by Alejo Carpentier, the diplomat and Cuba's most famous contemporary novelist. The book won the Prix Medici in France for the best foreign novel of 1969 but was never reprinted in his homeland because Mr. Arenas, like other homosexuals, had become the object of the Castro regime's disfavor.

His second novel, published here in the late 1960's by Harper & Row under the title "Hallucinations," was never published in Cuba.

In his autobiography, Mr. Arenas writes that in 1970 he was officially branded a "social misfit" and sentenced to a labor camp to cut sugar cane. There he wrote "El Central," a poem about a sugar mill that represented the history of slavery and forced labor in Cuba.

"El Central" was published here by Avon Books in 1984, which also reprinted "Hallucinations" in a new translation and under a new title, "The Ill-Fated Peregrinations of Fray Servando" (1987). Avon also published another novel by Mr. Arenas, "The Graveyard of the Angels" (1987). Virtual Poverty in U.S.

Because Mr. Arenas's writing was smuggled out of Cuba and published abroad, the author was confined to El Morro prison from 1974 to 1976, accused of being a counterrevolutionary.

After arriving in the United States, Mr. Arenas lived in virtual poverty for several years; at his death he lived in a small apartment on the sixth floor of a walkup in the "Hell's Kitchen" section of the West Side.

But his fortunes improved somewhat when "Farewell to the Sea," a novel that he wrote in prison and then rewrote after it had been confiscated, was published in the United States by Penguin in 1985. That was the first of a quintet titled "Pentagonia," the second volume of which, "The Palace of the White Skunks," is to be published next month by Viking. Viking has two other titles from the quintet under contract, as well as the autobiography, "Before Night Falls." The other book in the quintet, "Singing From the Well," was published by Viking in 1987.

Grove Weidenfeld, which published two of Mr. Arenas's novellas last year under the title of "Old Rosa," has scheduled another of his novels, "The Doorman," for publication next spring. In addition, it recently signed up yet another of his novels, "Journey to Havana," plus a trilogy that includes "El Central."

Mr. Arenas is survived by his mother, who lives in Cuba.